Newble and Entwistle

Recent educational research has indicated that “students approach their study in different ways.” Although “this is partly determined by learning style” or the manner in which an individual prefers to learn,  “it is also significantly influenced by the context.” The combination of the two produces characteristic approaches to learning which are recognizable in all groups of students…”

A model of “how students learn in different ways which are partly attributable to their preferred learning style and partly to the context in which the learning takes place.”  Newble and Entwistle  (1986) describe three basic approaches: surface, deep and strategic – each resulting in a different learning outcome. The most desirable and successful is the deep approach. [1]

[1] Learning styles and approaches: implications for medical education, D. I. Newble and N. J. Entwistle, Medical Education, Volume 20, Issue 3, pages 162–175, May 1986