VAK learning styles

One of the most common and widely-used categorizations of the various types of learning styles is Neil Fleming’s VARK model (sometimes VAK) which expanded upon earlier Neuro-linguistic programming (VARK) models:

Fleming claimed that visual learners have a preference for seeing (think in pictures; visual aids such as overhead slides, diagrams, handouts, etc.). Auditory learners best learn through listening (lectures, discussions, tapes, etc.). Tactile/kinesthetic learners prefer to learn via experience—moving, touching, and doing (active exploration of the world; science projects; experiments, etc.). Its use in pedagogy allows teachers to prepare classes that address each of these areas. Students can also use the model to identify their preferred learning style and maximize their educational experience by focusing on what benefits them the most. [1]

Therefore, by facilitating a process so your students can self-identify how they learn best – that is whether they are a visual, auditory or kinesthetic learner (seeing, hearing or touch/tactile, respectively) can help preceptors meet the learning needs of students more efficiently and effectively,

  • Visual learning style involves the use of seen or observed things, including pictures, diagrams, demonstrations, displays, handouts, films, flip-chart, etc.
  • Auditory learning style involves the transfer of information through listening: to the spoken word, of self or others, of sounds and noises.
  • Kinesthetic learning involves physical experience – touching, feeling, holding, doing, practical hands-on experiences.

For more information or to to get a sense of your learning style, click here.

[1] Learning Styles. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved October 5, 2012, from